According to the WHO, it is estimated that in the world there are:
- 1,000 million overweight
- 300 million overweight or obese
- 1/5 obese middle-aged European adults
Obesity contributes to mortality/morbidity. When the weight increases to an extreme level, it is defined as morbid obesity. Obesity is associated with diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, some types of cancer and other medical problems. Mortality in men with 50% excess weight is double and 5 times more if they are diabetic.
In women, mortality increases by double the original and 8 times more if they are diabetic. The Bariatric surgery is the term used to refer to operations that help promote weight loss. Bariatric surgery procedures are only advised for people with severe obesity ie a body mass index greater than 40 or greater than 35 if they have associated diseases.
The ultimate goal of bariatric surgery is weight loss and improve or eliminate the risk associated with this excess weight.
People considering bariatric surgery should consider the risks and possible benefits with their doctor. Bariatric surgery has associated risks and long-term consequences, and should only be considered as part of an approach in treating their obesity. Most bariatric surgeons believe that operations have better results when they help promote lifelong changes in behaviour and nutrition. To avoid complications that may represent a risk in the patient’s life, it is essential to continue a long-term follow up with doctors who are experienced in dealing with patients undergoing these procedures, as well as to oversee a life supplement of vitamins.
Body Mass Index
Body mass index (BMI) is a standard way of defining overweight, obesity and morbid obesity. The BMI is calculated based on a person’s height and weight: weight in kilograms divided by the square of their height in meters. A BMI of 25 or more is considered overweight; 30 or more, obesity; and 40 or more, morbid obesity. Bariatric surgery can be offered to patients with severe obesity when medical treatments, including changes in lifestyle, such as healthy eating and regular exercise, have not been effective.
Gastric Bypass (Gastric Derivation in and from Roux)
The size of the stomach is permanently reduced to a bag the size of an egg.
The bag rejoins one of the intestines conducts of 100 to 150 cm that avoids the stomach.
In this way the amount of food ingested is limited and its absorption is reduced.
Adjustable Gastric Band
The size of the opening from the oesophagus to the stomach is reduced by the gastric band; This decreases the amount of food that is possible to comfortably eat.
The surgeon can adjust the size of the opening by inflating or deflating the band through an adjustment port located in the abdomen’s wall, just below the skin. The band can be removed when desired.