Allergology is a medical specialty that studies a vast number of diseases and pathologies in various fields, for both children and adults, which have a close relationship with other specialties such as Otolaryngology, Pneumology/pulmonology, Dermatology, but with one common origin: the development of an anomalous response of our immune system against initially innocuous substances called allergens. Thus, the allergist is the only specialist who addresses all these diseases.
In the last 30 years, there has been an increase in the frequency of respiratory allergies, food allergies, allergies to drugs and cutaneous allergies. Although it can affect any age, the allergic pathology is usually more frequent among children and young people, which is why we treat all population groups indistinctly.
Based on the knowledge and experience of this consulting room in handling the most current techniques for diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases, both paediatric allergology and allergies in adult patients are carefully evaluated with processes such as:
- Respiratory pathology: rhinitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic bronchial asthma.
- Dermatological Allergies and Pathologies such as hives, angioedema, eczema, atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, itch …
- Food Allergies: Oral Allergy Syndrome, hives / Food Angioedema, Food Anaphylaxis.
- Drug Allergy: Idiosyncrasy to NSAIDs, Allergy to Antibiotics, Allergy to Contrasts.
- Latex Allergy.
- Allergy to Hymenoptera: wasp and bee stings
All of this is achieved by means of the most up-to-date techniques, diagnostic processes and treatments:
- Intraepidermal skin tests or Prick-tests
- Patch test
- Tests of Pulmonary Function: Simple Spirometry, Forced Spirometry, Flow-Volume Loops and Bronchodilator tests.
- Analysis of Specific IgE determination and Molecular Diagnosis.
- Subcutaneous, sublingual immunotherapy and in freeze-dry tablets.
Nuestros Profesionales de Alergología (Grupo Alergomálaga).
- Dr. Jaime García Campos
- Dr. Gonzalo Campos Suarez
- Dra. Rocio de la Higuera Artesero
According to the SEAIC (Spanish Society of Allergology and Clínical Immunology), one defines it as Atopy: the genetic disposition of responding to common environmental antigens (allergens), by producing significantly high amounts of specific IgE antibodies.
Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory process of the nasal mucus caused by the interaction of one or more allergens recognized as “noxious” by the antibody E of sensitized patients.
When this IgE binds itself with defence cells, inflammatory substances are released, which are the ones responsible for causing these symptoms.
- A runny nose: Mucus, generally watery and clear
- Sneezing in rescue or repetition
- Itch: Nasal and/or ear, palate, pharyngeal, ocular (allergic conjunctivitis) itch.
- Nasal congestion or tamponade, thereby generating a nasal respiratory failure.
These are the main ones, however, it can then get aggravated by other processes that would add another symptomatology, which could be rhinosinusitis, sinusitis, nasal polyposis … etc.
Antihistamines are a group of drugs with more than 50 years of history, which are used to treat allergic-type reactions and control the symptoms derived from them. In rhinitis, they help reduce the production of mucus and sneezing, to reduce the itching of nose and eyes, and when it comes to hives, they reduce inflammation and itching.
This commonly occurs with the antihistamines from the first generation, the oldest ones,however, each drug is unique and has its own side effects. Nevertheless, it is preferable to use second-generation antihistamines, which are more modern and safe, so the probability of producing drowsiness is much lower.
The initial treatment starts by cleaning those mucus membranes with saline, to ‘drag’ along the particles that are on them. We can also use oral antihistamines as the first step of the treatment, which can be used alongside nasal sprays containing corticosteroids or antihistamine eye drops, depending on the intensity of the symptoms.
Asthma is a lung disease characterized by an inflammation of the bronchi. This inflammation is usually variable and of reversible course, producing an obstruction to the passage of air thus triggering the typical symptoms of a cough, wheezing or whistling, shortness of breath or dyspnea and pressure in the chest.
Depending on the frequency at which the symptoms appear, there are a series of steps of medical treatment where the key piece is the inhalers or ‘sprays’. These can carry a drug or several drugs according to the needs of the patient. In patients with few symptoms, it will be enough to have a rapid bronchodilator to open the airway in a few minutes. In other patients who experience the symptoms more frequently, they will often require an inhaler that carries corticosteroids to deflate that airway. In addition, there are other oral drugs such as Montelukast, oral corticosteroids, and other drugs for very specific cases such as Omalizumab.
Symptomatic treatments will never cure the allergy, they will only help control the symptoms. In certain pathologies such as respiratory allergy (rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma), when there is one or several environmental allergens that explain the origin of the disease, vaccines or specific immunotherapy can be developed to treat that patient individually. These vaccines can ‘cure’ a high percentage of patients and can help the others significantly reduce their symptoms, having a positive impact on their quality of life.
Hives are a cutaneous pathology usually banal and of short duration, although it can create unrest in those who suffer from it. It usually occurs with the appearance of “welts” or weals, which are small elevations or bumps in the skin more or less reddish, that itch a lot, but usually disappear in less than 24 hours without leaving an injury, although they can appear and disappear several times over a certain period of days or weeks.
The fundamental step for the treatment of hives is the administration of antihistamines. Occasionally and depending on the severeness or intensity with which these are presented, it may require the sporadic use of oral or intramuscular corticosteroids, yet antihistamines are essential.